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Nd:YVO4 Crystals

Features:

  • Doping concentration range from 0.1% to 3%
  • Doping concentration tolerance: ±0.05%(atm% < 1%),±0.1%(atm%≥1%).
  • Various size bulk and finished high quality Nd:YVO4 crystals up to  Φ20x20mm3, respectively
  • Both ends AR/AR-1064/808nm, R < 0.2%@1064nm,R < 2%@808nm
  • S1:HR@1064&532nm,HT808nm,R>99.8%@1064&532nm,T>90%@808nm S2:AR@1064&532nm, R < 0.2%@1064nm,R < 0.5%@532nm
  • S1:HR@1064,HT808, R > 99.8%@1064nm,T > 95%@808nm S2:AR@1064, R <0.1%@1064nm
  • S1,S2 AR-coated, S3:gold/chrome plated
  • Both ends AR/AR-1064 nm; S3:AR-808 nm
  • Other coatings are available upon request
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Specifications:

Transmitting Wavefront Distortion less than λ/4 @ 633nm Clear Aperture >90% central area
Chamfer ≤0.2mm@45degree Chip ≤0.1mm
Flatness λ/8 @ 633 nm Surface Quality 10/5 S/D
Parallelism better than 10 arc seconds Perpendicularity ≤5 arc minutes
Angle Tolerance ≤0.5° Quality Warranty Period one year under proper use

 

Physical and Optical Properties:

Atomic Density 1.26x1020 atoms /cm3 (Nd1.0%) Crystal Structure Zircon Tetragonal, space group D4h-I4/amd
a=b=7.1193A,c=6.2892A
Density 4.22g/cm3 Mohs Hardness 4-5(Glass-like)
Thermal Expansion Coefficient (300K) αa=4.43x10-6 /K
αc=11.37x10-6 /K
Thermal Conductivity Coefficient (300K) //C:0.0523W/cm/K
⊥C:0.0510W/cm/K
Lasing Wavelength 1064nm,1342nm Thermal Optical Coefficient (300K) dno/dT=8.5×10-6 /K
dne/dT=2.9×10-6 /K
Stimulated Emission Cross-section 25×10-19cm2 @ 1064nm Thermal Optical Coefficient (300K) dno/dT=8.5×10-6 /K
dne/dT=2.9×10-6 /K
Stimulated Emission Cross-section 25×10-19cm2@ 1064nm Fluorescent Lifetime 90μs(1% Nd doping)
Absorption Coefficient 31.4cm-1@810nm Intrinsic Loss 0.02cm-1@1064nm
Gain Bandwidth 0.96nm@1064nm Polarized Laser  Emission π polarization; parallel to optic axis(c-axis)
Diode Pumped Optical to Optical Efficiency >60% Sellemeier equations (λ in μm) n02=3.77834+0.069736/(λ2-0.04724)-0.010813λ2
ne2=4.59905+0.110534/(λ2-0.04813)-0.012676λ2

 

Laser Properties of Nd:YVO4
1.  One of the most attractive character of Nd:YVO4 is, compared with Nd:YAG, it has 5 times larger absorption coefficient in a broader absorption bandwidth around the 808 nm peak pump wavelength, which just matches the standard of high power laser diodes currently available. This means a smaller Nd:YVO4 crystal that could be used for the laser, leading to a more compact laser system. For a given output power, this also means a lower power level at which the laser diode operates, thus extending the lifetime of the expensive laser diode. The broader absorption bandwidth of Nd:YVO4 which may reaches 2.4 to 6.3 times that of Nd:YAG, is also valuable. Besides more efficient pumping, Nd:YVO4 also means a broader range of selection of diode specifications. This will be helpful to laser system makers for wider tolerance and lower cost choice.
2.  Nd:YVO4 crystal has larger stimulated emission cross-sections, both at 1064nm and 1342nm. When a-axis cut Nd:YVO4 crystal lasing at 1064m, it is about 4 times higher than that of Nd:YAG, while at 1340nm the stimulated cross-section is 18 times larger, which leads to a CW operation completely outperforming Nd:YAG at 1320nm. These make Nd:YVO4 laser be easy to maintain a strong single line emission at the two wavelengths.
3.  Another important character of Nd:YVO4 lasers is, because it is an uniaxial rather than a high symmetry of cubic as Nd:YAG, what it emits is only a linearly polarized, thus avoiding undesired birefringent effects on the frequency conversion. Although the lifetime of Nd:YVO4 is about 2.7 times shorter than that of Nd:YAG, its slope efficiency can be still quite high for a proper design of laser cavity, because of its high pump quantum efficiency.
The major laser properties of Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG are listed in Table below, including stimulated emission cross-sections (σ), Absorption Coefficient (α) Fluorescent lifetime (τ),Absorption Length (La),threshold Power (Pth) and Pump Quantum Efficiency (ηs).

 

Laser Properties of Nd:YVO4 vs Nd:YAG

Laser Crystal Doping (atm%) σ
(x10-19cm2)
α
(cm-1)
τ
(μs)

(mm)
Pth
(mW)
ηs
(%)
Nd:YVO4(a-cut) 1.0
2.0
25
25
31.2
72.4
90
50
0.32
0.14
30
78
52
48.6
Nd:YVO4(c-cut) 1.1 7 9.2 90   231 45.5
Nd:YAG 0.85 6 7.1 230 1.41 115 38.6

 

Typical Results of Nd:YVO4

Diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser output comparing with diode pumped Nd:YAG laser.

Crystals Size (mm3) Pump Power Output (at 1064nm)
Nd:YVO4 3x3x1 850mW 350mW
Nd:YVO4 3x3x5 15W 6W
Nd:YAG 3x3x2 850mW 34mW
  1. Diode pumped Nd:YVO4+KTP green laser
  2. 8W green laser was generated from a 15W LD pumped 0.5% Nd:YVO4 with intracavity KTP
  3. 200mW green outputs are generated from 1W LD pumped 2% Nd:YVO4 lasers
Neodymium doped Gadolinium Vanadate or Nd:YVO4 crystal is one of the most efficient laser host crystal for DPSS lasers. Its large stimulated emission cross-section at lasing wavelength, high absorption coefficient and wide absorption bandwidth at pump wavelength, high damage threshold as well as good physical, optical and mechanical properties make Nd:YVO4 an excellent crystal for high power, stable and cost effective DPSS lasers. Hangzhou Shalom EO offers the Nd:YVO4 with Nd doping range of 0.1%-3% and with size up to Diam20x20mm.

Application Notes:

Nd:YVO4’s advantages over Nd:YAG 
As high as about five times larger absorption efficient over a wide pumping bandwidth around 808nm (therefore, the dependency on pumping wavelength is much lower and a strong tendency to the single mode output). 
As large as three times larger stimulated emission cross-section at the lasing wavelength of 1064nm. 
Lower lasing threshold and higher slope efficiency. 
As a uniaxial crystal with a large birefringence, the emission is only linearly polarized.