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  • Quartz (SiO2) Crystals and Wafers
  • Quartz (SiO2) Crystals and Wafers

Quartz (SiO2) Crystals and Wafers

  • Diameters: 3”, 4”, 5” and 6”
  • Crystals ingots, blanks and customized wafers available
  • Surface type:single side polished/double sides polished
  • Curie Temperature and QC Tested
  • Appliations: fabrication of piezoelectric for such as timing frequency control and frequency selection
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Quartz Crystals Specifications:

Materials both Pure Z and Y bar available Synthetic Q Value min 1.8 , 2.4 to 3.0 mil IEC
Etch Channel Density max 15/cm2 max100/cm2; max300/cm2 Stress No dark or discolored visible in polarized light
Surface Finishing #1000, #2000, #3000 , #4000, and Polished std Angle Tolerance ZZ': +/-15" +/-30", +/-1' +/-2'
XX' +/-15 , +/-30' Cut Type AT. BT. IT ,SC,....,etc.
Frequency 1Mhz up to 50 Mhz for AT-fundamental Size for Round Blank from 3.0 to 15.0 mm dia (with flat)
Size for Wafer 2.0x8.0 (mm)~ 16x16(mm) SMD Type 2.5x3.0 above at Customer option
Flat as request the flat shall be prependicular to X axis within +/- 10 deg New Developed SC-cut and LiTao3 blank & Convex blank(plano-convex) for SC-cut : theta angle: +/-30" and Phi angle : +/-3'

Specifications for 3”/4”/5”/6” Quartz Wafers

Specifications for 3”/4”/5”/6” Quartz Wafers
Wafer Size 3” 4” 5” 6”
Diameter(mm) 76.2 100 125 150
Tolerance (±mm) 0.25 0.5 0.5 0.5
Primary Reference Flat (mm) 22mm or customized 32.5mm or  customized 42.5mm or customized 57.5mm or customized
LTV (5x5mm) (μm) <2 <2 <2 <2
TTV (μm) <8 <10 <15 <20
Bow (μm) ±20 ±25 ±40 ±40
Warp(μm) ≤30 ≤40 ≤50 ≤50
PLTV (%) (5x5mm) ≥90% ≥90% ≥90% ≥90%
Cutting Angle AT36/ST42.75/X/Y/Z etc
Orientation Flat All available
Surface Type Single side polished/Double sides polished
Polished Side Ra (nm) ≤1
Back Side Criteria (μm) General is 0.2-0.5 or as customized
Edge Rounding Compliant with SEMI M1.2 Standard/refer to IEC62276
Appearance Contamination: None
Particles Φ>0.3μm: ≤30
Saw Marks, striations: None
Scratch: None
Cracks, crowsfeet, Saw marks, strains: None


Basic Properties:

1. Physical Properties of Synthetic Crystal Quartz

Density(g/cm3) 2.65 Melting Point(°C) 1467
Thermal Conductivity, W/(m x K)
(T = 25°C)
10.7 (parallel to axis Z) 
6.2 (perpendicular to axis Z)
Thermal Conductivity, W/(m x K)
(T = 25°C)
7.1 õ 10-6 (parallel to axis Z) 
13.2 õ 10-6 (perpendicular to axis Z)
Hardness (Mohs) 7 Specific Heat Capacity, J/(kg x K)
(T = 25°C)
Specific Heat Capacity, J/(kg x K)
(T = 25°C)
4.34 (parallel to axis Z) 
4.27 (perpendicular to axis Z)
Young's Modulus (E), GPa 4.34 (parallel to axis Z) 
4.27 (perpendicular to axis Z)
Shear Modulus (G), GPa 31.14 Bulk Modulus (K), GPa 36.4
Chemical Stability insoluble in water Elastic Coefficients C11=87 C12=7 C44=58 C13=13 C14=18 C33=106

2. Synthetic Crystal Quartz Refractive Index vs Wavelength

Synthetic Crystal Quartz Refractive Index vs Wavelength
λ(μm) n0 ne λ(μm) n0 ne λ(μm) n0 ne
0.185 1.676 1.690 0.243 1.605 1.617 0.589 1.544 1.553
0.194 1.660 1.673 0.263 1.593 1.604 1.083 1.534 1.543
0.204 1.643 1.656 0.291 1.581 1.591 1.800 1.524 1.532
0.219 1.625 1.637 0.340 1.567 1.577 2.500 1.512 1.520
0.231 1.614 1.626 0.405 1.557 1.567 3.000 1.500 1.507


Application Notes:

1. Materials

This material consists of single-crystal right-handed a-quartz artificially grown bars which is intended for use in fabrication of piezoelectric for such as timing freq control and frequency selection under hydro-thermal condition on a seed with its length along the Y axis. This cultured quartz crystal shall have nominal Q specification defined by followed grade: Grade Q-VALUE : Specification of the synthetic quartz crystal.

Specification of Quartz Crystals
Infrared Absorption α 3585 ≤ 0.024 ≤ 0.024 ≤ 0.05 ≤ 0.05
Q x106 3.0 3.0 2.4 2.4
Inclusions Density I I I I or II
Etch Channel Density (strips/cm2 ) ≤10 ≤30 ≤100 ≤100


2. Quality Evaluation of Synthetic Quartz Crystal

2.1 The amount of crystal defect and impurity in synthetic quartz crystal depends on growth rate, mineralizer and raw material. The growth rate affects greatly to the important properties such as infra-red absorption coefficient α, which correlates to Q value, and frequency –temperature characteristics. The larger growth rate causes increase in α, decrease in Q value, and dispersion in frequency-temperature characteristics.

2.2 The quality index of synthetic quartz crystal was originally a Q value, and a 5 MHz quartz crystal unit operated in 5th overtone mode was used to obtain the Q value. But it required laborious work to fabricate the 5 MHz crystal unit, so the index had been changed to the coefficient α instead of the Q value.

3. Standard Specification for Synthetic Quartz Crystal

3.1 Twinning: There shall be no electrical or optical twinning in the usable region.

3.2 Strain: There shall be no strain contained both inside and surface of seed crystal as well as in a grown quartz crystal.

3.3 Cracks and fractures: There shall be no cracks, chippings or fractures in the usable region.

3.4 Inclusion density: The specification is in accordance with the IEC 60758.

Size Range (μm) Grade Q’ty Per(cm3)
10 to 30 30 to 70 70 to 100 >100
Ia 2 1 0 0
Ib 3 2 1 1
I 6 5 2 2
II 9 5 4 3
III 12 8 6 4


3.5 Infra-red quality indication: The specification is in accordance with the IEC 60758.

Grade Max. α3585 Estimated Q Values (x 106)
A 0.015 3.8
A 0.024 3.0
B 0.050 2.4
C 0.069 1.8
D 0.100 1.4


3.6 Etch channel density: The specification is in accordance with the IEC 60758.

Grade Max. Number Per(cm3)
1 10
2 30
3 100
4 300
5 600


4. Specification for Lumbered Quartz Crystal

4.1 Angles:

4.1.1 angle of X-surface around Y-axis: 00°00’±15’

4.1.2 Rotation angle of X-surface around Z-axis: 00°00’±15’

4.2 Dimensional tolerance:

4.2.1 along X or Z axis:±0.1 mm

4.2.2 along Y axis:±10 mm

4.3 Surface roughness: as customized ,lapped and polished are both available.

Quartz crystal,which has chemical composition of SiO2, belongs to the trigonal crystal system,space group P3121 or P3221 depending on the chirality. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end.Under natural circumstances, quartz crystals are often distorted, or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals, twinned (with twin right-handed and left-handed quartz crystals),  as to only form imperfectly the ideal prism shape ,or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive.

Quartz single crystals has no pyroelectric effect and no ferroelectricity. Its melting point is 1750℃. The density is 2.65×103 kg/m3, and the Mohs hardness is 7. The main performance characteristics of quartz crystal are: good temperature performance of piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric coefficient, almost unchanged at room temperature; high mechanical strength and quality factor, high rigidity, good dynamic characteristics; no pyroelectricity, good insulation, Good repeatability. Its piezoelectric coefficient hardly changes with temperature in the normal temperature range. In the range of 20 to 200 ℃, the temperature increases by 1 ℃. The piezoelectric coefficient d11 is only reduced by 0.016%. 

Quartz crystals is the most representative and widely used piezoelectric crystal among single crystals. The applications of piezoelectric quartz include resonators, filters, and is widely used in navigation, remote control, telemetry, electronics, and electric equipment for automatic weapons, supersonic aircraft, missiles, nuclear weapons, electron microscopes, chronographs, electronic computers, artificial earth satellites, etc..

Hangzhou Shalom EO offers the SAW grade quartz materials and wafers, advanced facilities are equipped for crystals growing, wafer cutting, wafer lapping, wafer polishing and wafer checking, all finished products are passed at Testing of curie Temp and QC inspections. The quartz crystals boules, crystals blanks, wafer blanks and polished wafers are available upon customer’s request.

Various Types of Quartz Crystal Orientation

Fused Silica and Optical Quartz Glass Wafers

Fused Silica and Optical Quartz Glass Wafers

    • Brands: Corning HPFS 7980/7979/7978, JGS1 UV Optical Quartz Glass (made in china)
    • Substrates for semiconductors, micro-electronics, Optical Windows, Optical Mirrors, etc.
    • Single Crystal Quartz Wafers and Substrates also available
    • Custom dimensions, shapes, and more
    • Maximum Diameter 450mm, Minimum thickness 0.03mm
    • Applications: UV applications, Optical and Laser Systems, Spacecrafts and Semiconductor, etc