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Germanium (Ge) Crystals and Substrates

  • High purity and good surface roughness(Ra)≤5Å(5µm×5µm)
  • High chemical stability and good photoelectric performance
  • For epitaxial growth or layer transfer of III-V compounds
  • Germanium Lens and Germanium windows for infrared application available
  • Various doping options: No doping (R>35Ωcm) or Sb-doped (R=0.05Ωcm) or Ga –doped (R0.05~0.1Ωcm)
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Orientation <100>, <110>, <111>±0.5º Size(mm) 10x3, 10x5, 10x10, 15x15, 20x15, 20x20
dia2” x 0.33mm dia2” x 0.43mm 15 x 15 mm
Thickness 0.5mm, 1.0mm Polishing SSP (single surface polished) or
DSP (double surface polished)
Ra ≤5Å(5µm×5µm)


Basic Properties:

Growth Method Czochralski Crystal Structure M3
Lattice Constant a=5.65754 Å Density 5.323g/cm3
Melt Point 937.4℃
Doped Material No doped Sb-doped Ga –doped
Type / N P
Resistivity >35Ωcm 0.05Ωcm 0.05~0.1Ωcm
EPD <4×103∕cm2 <4×103∕cm2 <4×103∕cm2

Germanium is a rare metal and contains many unique properties and merits,  germanium is a semiconductor. Our developed techniques have led to the production of crystalline germanium for semiconductors that has an extremely low impurity. The merits of Germanium  include strong corrosion-resistance, high chemical stability, easy processing, high and uniform transmittance, high refractive index, high radiation resistance and good photoelectric performance. Germanium or Ge substrates are interesting alternatives for epitaxial growth or layer transfer of III-V compounds, because of the closely-matching thermal and similar lattice constants,  germanium substrates can be used to make gallium arsenide solar cells.

 Germanium is less expensive and more mechanically strong than Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). Therefore Ge substrates can be thinned, and cells can be made larger, reducing the weight and cost of space arrays. The germanium substrates can always be used to manufacture semiconductor devices, infrared optics and solar cell substrates. 

Hangzhou Shalom EO provides wafers which are precisely "off-cut" towards the appropriate direction and are clean package with 1000 grade clean room and 100 grade bags.